1. The control of luent speech

    1.1. Speaking as a sequential behavior

    1.2. Speaking programs and acoustic word forms

    1.3. The automatic self-monitoring of speech

    1.4. Expectations – the basis of self-monitoring

    1.5. Inner speech

2. The theory of stuttering

    2.1. The immediate cause: invalid error signals

        2.1.1. Explanatory power

    2.2. The role of cerebellum and basal ganglia

        2.2.1. The two components of stuttering

    2.3. Similar theories

    2.4. The root cause: misallocation of attention

        2.4.1. Speech processing requires attention

        2.4.2. The causal chain of stuttering

    2.5. Stuttering at speech onset

    2.6. Childhood stuttering

        2.6.1. Transient childhood stuttering

        2.6.2 Spontaneous recovery

    2.7. Persistent stuttering

        2.7.1. The vicious circle of stuttering

    2.8. The predisposition for stuttering

        2.8.1. Attention deficits, hyperactivity

        2.8.2. Auditory processng deficits

    2.9. Consequences for therapy

        2.9.1. The application of speech aids

3. Fluency-enhancing conditions

    3.1. Earlier theories

    3.2. A new unifying explanation

    3.3. Rhythmic speech

    3.4. Choral speech

    3.5. Shadow speech

    3.6. Slow speech

    3.7. Singing

    3.8. Altered auditory feedback

        3.8.1. Delayed auditory feedback

        3.8.2. Frequency-altered auditory feedback

    3.9. Non-auditory stimulation

        3.9.1. Response contingent stimulation

    3.10. Masked auditory feedback

    3.11. Whispering and mouthing

    3.12. Inner speech

    3.13. How FCs work at speech onset

4. Stuttering and the brain

    4.1. Attention and lateralization

    4.2. White matter deficits – the cause of stuttering?

    4.3. White matter development in children who stutter

    4.4. Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and stuttering


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Tables and figures

Table 1: Brain activation in secondary auditory areas

Table 2: Structure of “Why does stuttering disappear...”

Figure 1: Feedback-based and feed-forward control

Figure 2: Acoustic word forms and speaking programs

Figure 3: Internal and external feedback loop

Figure 4: Model of speech processing

Figure 5: Speech error versus stuttering

Figure 6: The two components, further update

Figure 7: The causal chain of a stutter event

Figure 8: The development of transient stuttering

Figure 9: The development of persistent stuttering

Figure 10: The vicious circle of stuttering

Figure 11: Predispostion and influencing factors

Figure 12: How fluency-enhancing conditions work

Figure 13: Types of fluency-enhancing conditions

Figure 14: Attention and the lack of lateralization

Figure 15: Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)

Figure 16: Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)

Figure 17: The two components of stuttering

Figure 18: The two components – update

Figure 19: Basal ganglia – direct pathway

Figure 20: Basal ganglia, cerebellum, indirect pathway

Figure 21: Amplified auditory feedback (Fiorin et al., 2021)


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Blog entries

2024-6-21: A (late) comment on Fiorin et al. (2021)

2024-5-30: A comment on Lazzari et al. (2024)

2024-5-28: A comment on Neef and Chang (2024)

2024-1-12: Let’s put the puzzle together!

2022-11-11: Stuttering, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

2022-9-28: Auditory processing deficits and stuttering

2022-9-19: Stuttering disappeared after cerebellar injury

2020-12-14: Why does stuttering disappear...

2020-8-23: Resonant voice against stuttering

2020-5-11: Are internal forward models involved in suttering?

2019-11-14: Pre-speech auditory modulation

2019-10-14: Wastepipe toobaloo and echo mic

2019-7-14: The two components of stuttering

2019-6-13: Wernicke’s aphasia.

2019-5-18: The debate on auditory feedback.

2019-3-5: When we hear ourselves saying something...

2018-12-1: The Toobaloo

2018-11-7: Pre-speech facilitation

2018-9-27: The Main Interruption Rule

2018-8-16: Speech sound discrimination and stuttering.

2018-7-29: Anomalous regulation of visual attention.

2018-7-1: Shadow speech – normal and inverse.

2018-2-19: tDCS in the treatment of stuttering?

2018-1-2: Why are right frontal brain areas overactive?

2017-12-16: DAF, stuttering, and auditory processing.

2017-11-28: The mystery of the DAF effect.


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